September 22, 2019
Ultra-precision grinding and polishing technology is a kind of ultra-precision processing technology. Ultra-precision machining technology refers to high-precision machining that exceeds or reaches the precision limit of this era. Ultra-precision machining is actually a relative concept, and with the general improvement of the technological level, different eras have different boundaries, but strict unified standards. Judging from the current technological level of machining, machining with a machining error of less than 0.01 μm and surface roughness Ra less than 0.025 μm is usually called ultra-precision machining. Ultra-precision machining technology originated in the early 1960s-the United States first developed an ultra-precision machining lathe in 1962. This technology emerged to meet the needs of modern high-tech development. It comprehensively uses newly developed mechanical research results and modern electronics, computers, and measurement technologies. It is a modern machining process. Ultra-precision machining has a broad market demand. For example, in the defense industry, the processing of gyroscopes involves a number of ultra-precision processing technologies, because the quality of the gyroscope of the missile system directly affects its hit rate-according to relevant data, the center of mass of the gyroscope rotor of 1kg deviates from its symmetry axis by 0.0005 μm will cause a range error of 100m and a track error of 50m; in the information industry, chips, disks and magnetic heads on computers, magnetic drums for video recorders, photosensitive drums for photocopiers, optical discs and laser heads, polyhedrons for laser printers, and inkjets The inkjet heads of printers must rely on ultra-precision processing to meet product performance requirements: among civilian products, modern small and ultra-small imaging equipment, such as micro cameras and pinhole cameras, also rely on ultra-precision processing technology.
What we call ultra-precision processing technology, in addition to ultra-precision grinding and polishing technology, also includes ultra-precision grinding, ultra-fine processing, finishing and finishing. These ultra-precision machining methods can process dimensional accuracy, shape accuracy and surface roughness that cannot be achieved by ordinary precision machining.
However, the realization of ultra-precision cutting and ultra-precision grinding largely depends on processing equipment and processing tools, and is also affected and restricted by processing principles and environmental factors. Therefore, if you want to improve processing accuracy from these aspects , It is very difficult. The ultra-precision grinding and polishing technology has a unique processing principle, which can realize nano-level or even atomic-level processing, and has become an important part of ultra-precision processing technology. Therefore, ultra-precision grinding and polishing technology is now attracting attention.
Grinding and polishing are traditional crafts with the longest history. Ancient stone tools, jade artifacts and bronze mirrors were manufactured by grinding and polishing. Since ancient times, grinding and polishing has always been a precision processing method, but its development has been slow for many years. It was not until the 1950s that the rapid development of the electronics industry brought new dawn to the ancient grinding and polishing technology.
Ultra-precision grinding and polishing technology generally refers to the selection of grinding powder with a particle size of only a few nanometers as grinding abrasives, which is injected into the grinding tool to remove traces of workpiece material to achieve a certain geometric accuracy (generally, the error is below 0.1μm ) And surface roughness (generally Ra≤0.01μm).
There are two main technical goals, one is to reduce the surface roughness or to improve the dimensional accuracy, and the other is to achieve the function of the functional material components, and it is required to solve the surface roughness and extremely small matching high precision. Metamorphic layer problem. In addition, for the processing of single crystal materials, flatness, thickness, and orientation accuracy of crystal phases are also required. For the processing of electronic materials, in addition to requiring high shape accuracy, it must also achieve a physical or crystallographic ideal mirror surface without damage.
With the development of science and technology, various systems of optics, mechanics, electronics and other disciplines have been manufactured. In order to ensure the high quality and high performance of the key components in the system, people's requirements for processing accuracy are getting higher and higher. The use of ultra-precision grinding and polishing technology can not only obtain the high performance of electronic, optical, and computer components, but also manufacture large-scale integrated circuit silicon wafers, crystal oscillator substrates and other crystal substrates to meet the requirements of extremely small surface roughness and extreme High flatness and ultra-smooth surface requirements can also achieve high performance such as strict parallel between the two ends of the material and no deterioration layer on the surface, and finally achieve nano-level or higher processing accuracy and non-damaged surface processing quality. Because of its unique strengths, the final processing of many materials uses ultra-precision plane grinding and polishing technology.
With the development of ultra-precision plane grinding and polishing technology, major breakthroughs have been made in the research of grinding methods, grinding principles, and grinding equipment. Now the processing accuracy can reach sub-nano or even nano-level precision, and different requirements for different materials Many innovative grinding and polishing methods and equipment tools have been developed. However, ultra-precision grinding and polishing technology cannot be regarded as an isolated processing method and a pure process problem. In modern processing, the problem should be grasped from the perspective of the whole project. To achieve ultra-precision surface grinding and polishing, not only ultra-precision equipment and tools, ultra-stable environmental conditions, but also experienced workers and skilled processing technology are required. Only by combining the technical achievements in various fields can it be achieved. Our expected requirements.